Hello World Programming


C is not only a "System programming language" but has a wide variety of use in other domain.

Fundamental Data Types

  • Characters char
  • Integers int, short, long
  • Floating point double, float

Derived Data Types

  • Pointers
    • Pointers provide for a machine-independent address arithmetic.
  • Arrays
  • Structure
  • Unions.


Expressions are formed from Operator and Operands. Any expression including an assignment or a function call can be a statement.


Functions performs a single set of operation within a block of code.

Functions may return values of

  • Fundamental data types.
  • Derived Data types. except arrays
    • Pointers
    • Structure
    • Unions


  • Variables can be internal to a function.
  • External but known only within a single source file.
  • Visible to the entire program.
    • This is frowned upon and we should rarely use.


Preprocessing step performs macro substitution on program text, inclusion of other source file or conditional compilation.

UseCase not provided in C

  • Operations directly dealing with Composite Objects, like
    • Array,
    • Structure,
    • Unions
  • No Storage other than static and automatic.
  • No Input/Output facilities.
  • No built in file Access.

The above facilities are included by help of standard library defined by the ANSI C Standard.

ANSI C Standard

  • New syntax for declaring and defining functions.
  • Definition of a standard library.
  • C is not a strongly typed language.
  • C frowns on but permits the interchange of pointer and integers which has been eliminated by ANSI.
  • No Automatic conversion of incompatible data types.


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C Programming


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